19/12/2019

campagnolo electronic gearshift for 20 years

Today, the well-known Campagnolo electronic transmission system is EPS (Electronic Power Shift), but its development process has gone through six design stages, each of which has unknown challenges and changes, like genetics in DNA Passwords have evolved from generation to generation to today's EPS.

Phase 1: 1992, 8-speed version



Hand change: The most obvious change on the hand change is that the original upshift switch on the inside is replaced with an electronic button. The original downshift  lever was retained in its original form.


Front dial: The front dial is driven by an electric motor, and the working range is controlled by two contact limit switches. The forward dial moves the chain between the two chainrings by moving from the limit switch on one side to the switch on the other side.



Rear dial: The motor is added to the original parallelogram structure, but it needs to be used with the transmission line. The mechanical part is used to control the linear optical LED encoder. This solution allows the rear dial to perform a homing action like a mechanical transmission.

Controller: It is located in the encoder mentioned above. It can read the position, speed and direction of the moving parts, and convert the data into binary code. The system can only input and translate, and then control the direction of the dial.

Battery: The battery is composed of ordinary AA-Ni-Ch, and is installed at the position of the bottle holder.
Problems encountered: waterproof problems; the accuracy of the photoelectric coding is too low, and it will cause problems in the alignment of the back dial.

Second stage: 1994, 8-speed version



Hand change: Two more electronic buttons than the previous generation. In addition to the upshift (Xiaofei) button on the inside of the hand changer, a downshift button has been added to the outside of the shift lever and the inside of the brake lever, which can be operated alternately, but not simultaneously. The goal is to allow the driver to shift gears in any position.

Forward dial: From the previous limit of its working range through the limit switch to the use of LED encoders for control, the motor has also been changed to a high-speed motor, which is transmitted through gears. This has the advantage of making the forward call faster and the movement more precise.

Rear dial: The transmission line part used to control the LED encoder of the previous generation is cancelled, and a more advanced encoder is used inside.




Battery: located inside the seatpost. The original controller and battery were hand-built and included a digital display.

Problems encountered: The built-in battery and controller in the seat tube were very innovative designs, but at the time, too long wires would lead to increased power consumption and the transmission could not be set.

Phase III: 1997, 9-speed version



Hand change: No change compared to the previous hand change.



Rear dial: Compared with the previous-generation 8-speed flywheel, the 9-speed flywheel requires higher tolerances and longer strokes, so higher accuracy is required in the design process. In order to increase the speed of the rear dial, the power of the motor has also been increased.



Controller: Start using a rotatable friction sensor, which can filter out the stress and vibration generated by bumpy roads and improve the shifting accuracy.



Problems encountered: In the case of guaranteeing other indicators, the use time cannot be guaranteed.

Fourth stage: 2001, 10-speed version



Hand change: Cancel the previously exposed buttons, and keep the buttons built in while maintaining the original appearance, keeping the appearance and operation of the existing hand changes.

Forward dial: Back to the design of worm gears, the previous generation of friction rotary encoders was also changed to magnetic encoding, which improved the ability and accuracy of converting pulse signals into digital signals.



Rear dial: Start to use carbon fiber in a large amount to provide strength while reducing weight. Back-dial encoders are also replaced by rotary magnetic sensors, further improving accuracy.



Battery: Installed on the side of the bottle holder.

Controller: Specially designed and installed on the bottom of the cup holder. The new controller communicates with the smart computer and integrates a diagnostic system, allowing a closer connection between the rider and the bike.


Problems encountered: Excessive and excessive vibration will cause poor contact of the battery connection port, which will affect the operation of the entire drive system.

Fifth stage: 2005, 10-speed version

In 2005, during the special event around the Ibiza, the cold car on top of the car suffered a heavy rainstorm, coupled with the fast speed on the highway, which caused water seepage problems. Considering that the product's usage scenario is a top-level high-intensity competition, the company temporarily suspended the manufacturing of the system and stopped putting it on the market before the water seepage problem was finally resolved.


          20 years of Campagnolo electronic speed change: from mechanical semi-automatic to today's wireless transmission EPS system

Hand change: While retaining the design of the previous generation mechanical lever, an upshift button was added next to the upshift lever

Dial forward: dial backward and its encoder has not been changed.


              20 years of Campagnolo electronic speed change: from mechanical semi-automatic to today's wireless transmission EPS system

Batteries: Started using lithium batteries specially designed for electronic equipment. Durability and stability provide products with better stability and durability. The new battery installed on the bottom of the bottle holder improves the link, and the problem of poor contact has been resolved.

Controller: It communicates through a wireless communication system and is installed with the battery on the bottom of the bottle holder. This system is designed to eliminate excessive wiring connections on the bicycle and simplify the system.

Problems encountered: water seepage.

Sixth stage: 2011, 11-speed version




Manual change: redesigned the appearance, more ergonomic, canceled the third upshift button, and optimized the response speed of continuous shift. The traditional shifting habit is retained.

Front dial: completely redesigned to fit the installation and routing of the new frame, with an encoder built into it. Redesigned motors and gears for increased strength and accuracy.

Rear dial: In order to achieve the maximum accuracy at 11 speeds, the fine-tuning management system and algorithm have been readjusted, so that the rear dial can quickly resume automatic fine tuning even after experiencing an impact. Even if accidental damage occurs, you can manually move the dial back.



Batteries: redesigned to increase autonomy, the whole is installed in a special housing, which can be designed according to the requirements of the bicycle manufacturer and installed in different positions on the frame.



Controller: redesigned and placed inside the battery, eliminating the digital display screen, and achieving speed and cadence transmission through wireless technology. The battery only provides power, and the forward and backward movements communicate with the hand-held transformer through wireless technology.

From November 7, 2011 to now, it is the EPS system we are familiar with.